The death of a fly is utterly insignificant – or it’s a catastrophe. How much should we worry about what we squash?
by Stephen Cave 3,000 words
Stephen Cave is an English philosopher and journalist. His latest book is Immortality: The Quest to Live Forever and How it Drives Civilisation (2012). He lives in Berlin.
This morning a tiny fly was, true to its name and nature, flying about in the vicinity of my desk. It really was very tiny – a fruit fly, I’d guess. At one point it landed in front of me. I brushed it aside and it resumed flitting about in its patternless path. Then it landed again, and again I aimed to brush it aside. But this time, my aim was off. It was probably a matter of only a millimetre or so, but my finger landed, not next to the fly, but on it, and so what was meant to be a brushing motion became instead a squidging motion.
The fly was so small that it didn’t offer the least resistance to the pressure of my finger. Compliantly, it transformed itself into a dark smudge. Not a gory or bloody smudge; not one with the least detail or variation – not to my naked eye, anyway. Just a small, uniform, rather faint mark.
Now, I’m not a biologist, but I know that a fly is an animal, and more specifically, an insect. As such, it has (or had) wings, legs, eyes, antenna and a host of internal organs. Those parts are in turn made of cells, each one of which is hugely complex. And in those cells, among many other things, are – or were – the fly’s genes, which in turn embody an astonishing intricacy and an ancient, multi-million-year history, while in the fly’s gut would have been countless bacteria with their own genes, their own goals. Worlds within worlds, now squidged together into a single dark smudge that I am already finding it hard to pinpoint among the scratches and coffee rings. A history of life spread out before me, if only I were able to read it.
At this point, I guess that readers will be dividing into two parties. One party, probably the majority, will be thinking, ‘Get over it, it’s a fly.’ This, it seems to me, is a very reasonable position. Flies die in large numbers all the time – some, indeed, at my hand, whether I intend it or not (and I sometimes do). And in the summer evenings, when I sit on our terrace and watch swifts in their spectacle of swooping and screeching, this beautiful display is, of course, at the same time an orgy of insect death.
The other party of readers, probably the minority, will be horrified at my casual killing of this delicate life-form. They will be appalled at the waste and stupidity of my carelessness. To them, I must be an oaf; at best ignorant, at worst malevolent. And this, it seems to me, is also a very reasonable position. Even though I habitually write – sometimes about complex subjects – it is certain that with one mistimed finger-swipe I destroyed complexity and beauty many orders of magnitude greater than any I will ever create.
Thus it seems to me quite reasonable to think that the death of the fly is entirely insignificant and that it is at the same time a kind of catastrophe. To entertain such contradictions is always uncomfortable, but in this case the dissonance echoes far and wide, bouncing off countless other decisions about what to buy, what to eat – what to kill; highlighting the inconsistencies in our philosophies, our attempts to make sense of our place in the world and our relations to our co‑inhabitants on Earth. The reality is that we do not know what to think about death: not that of a fly, or of a dog or a pig, or of ourselves.
Which is a problem, because nature is a streamers-and-all, non-stop, cork-popping party of death. For example, I regularly take my children to a large park with a series of ponds, where in spring we look for frogspawn. This gelatinous broth is a mass of life in the making. Each batch contains many hundreds, even thousands of eggs. The next time we visit, the pond will be full of tadpoles, like a page covered in punctuation marks. But the time after that, there will be many fewer; and the next time we will have to look hard for those metamorphosing mini-frogs, as tiny as keychain toys, some still with their tadpole tails. Those we find are the few survivors, whose numbers will be thinned still more before any get as far as restarting the cycle with their own spawn. The Way of the Frog is to get Death so full at the feast that a few can slip past while he slumbers.
This party of death is, of course, at the same time a cork-popping party of life. For all the tadpoles that perish, some still make it to become frogs, and have been doing so for at least 200 million years. Those that don’t are the stuff of life for countless other creatures, from the littlest insect larvae to grand old storks. Indeed, frogs are regarded as a keystone species, which means that the death of their multitudinous offspring, along with the death that they themselves deal out, is crucial to the flourishing of the community of life. In the language of ecology, life and death are obligate symbionts, each wholly dependent on the other.
We too are built on a bedrock of old men’s bones. Our evolution to Homo sapiens is a product of the endless winnowing out of the unfit and the unfortunate. If some australopithecine apeman or woman had stumbled across the elixir of life, it is very unlikely that you or I would exist. It is worth bowing our heads for a moment to all our ancestors whose passing away made our lives possible.
I was drawn to imagine the great finger coming to squish me, my little life flashing before my bulging, compound eyes
But here we are – and many people would like it to stay that way. That tadpoles are fodder for pond-life is as natural as the leaves falling on the water in autumn; that flies get squidged is as ordinary as apples rotting in the orchard. One’s own death, on the other hand, seems most unnatural. It seems rather an error and an outrage; a cosmic crime; a reason to raise one’s fist and rebel against the regime that ordered this slaughter of innocents.
But here we are – guests at the party of life and death. We know we must exit along with the flies and the tadpoles. But we would rather not think about it. And that, perhaps, is the problem with my dead fly. When I squidged it, I summoned the Reaper to my desk. If only briefly, I caught his eye. If I had turned away fast enough, the fly’s death would have remained as insignificant as those of its invisible brothers and sisters caught by the swifts. But I was drawn instead inside its tiny head, drawn to imagine the great finger coming to squish me, my little life flashing before my bulging, compound eyes. Through a lapse in my indifference, I was drawn into the catastrophe, drawn to make its death my death.
I discovered the best and cleanest cockroach killer– BUBBLES! Bubbles kill cockroaches almost instantly. It doesn’t matter what you make the bubbles from. You can use any kind of shampoo, liquid soap, detergent, dish washing liquid or soap as long as it makes bubbles. This is a good way to use up leftover shampoo or liquid soap that you don’t want to use on yourself.
Killing cockroaches with bubbles is easy, quick, and very satisfying. When you see a cockroach crawling, all you have to do is grab a container of water and squirt some shampoo or liquid soap into the water. Then you mix it up to make it bubbly and fling the bubbly water at the cockroach. Cockroaches breathe through openings on their bodies. The bubbles will coat the openings and suffocate the cockroach! Depending on your accuracy and the speed of the cockroach, you may not get enough bubbles on the cockroach on your first attempt. As long as you get some water on it though, this will be enough to slow it down so you can pour more bubbles on it until it dies. This is an effective method for killing cockroaches that are on walls, high places, and other spots that are beyond arm’s reach. It is easy to fling water at great distances with some accuracy and they fall off the walls as soon as you hit them with some soapy water. You can also use a spray bottle filled with water and shampoo or soap. This method uses less water, so it’s more economical and less messy. It’s best to use lots of soapy water though to ensure that the cockroach is really dead and not just knocked out.
Another plus of this method is that when you’re done, your surroundings are cleaner and smell fresh! Clean up is a simple matter of wiping up the soapy water and getting rid of the dead cockroach. I noticed that cockroaches often secrete something dark and disgusting as they die. This could be the cockroach eggs. From what I’ve read, it’s best to flush it down the toilet.
Animal nutrition expert Elsje Pieterse says livestock feed made from maggots could reduce both large-scale and small-scale food waste.
“I was born in Namibia in the middle of a drought, so every drop of water is essential to me,” says Elsje Pieterse, sitting in her office at the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa, where she teaches animal management science and nutrition.
Pieterse’s career-long quest for ways to break down waste without using landfill sites, which can contaminate the water table, led her to a surprising resource: maggots, or fly larvae. More than 20 years ago, Pieterse became passionate about the promise of recycling nutrients by harvesting insects as a protein source for livestock. Until recently, though, the easy availability of cheap fishmeal and soy made it impossible for her to find a financial backer for her pet project. “Only when the resources started running out [did] they notice that there was a need for it,” says Pieterse, who holds a doctorate in animal science.
It’s a very palatable product, the black soldier fly maggots.”
— Elsje Pieterse
Entrepreneur Jason Drew saw that need, and when his call came in 2007, Pieterse was ready for it. In 2009 Drew helped found Cape Town-based AgriProtein to develop large-scale, sustainable sources of natural protein. Today, Pieterse is on the company’s advisory board and leads its animal nutrition research. AgriProtein’s first industrial-scale factory, a “fly farm” north of Cape Town that harvests fly larvae raised on waste nutrients, broke ground in May 2014, and two sites are scheduled to be operational by 2015.
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